Electrical Work

When wiring, cables should be laid in Stroebe, or cable channel in parallel and perpendicular to the architectural lines of the walls and ceilings, and all the vertical direction are performed using a plumb. Any wiring or cuttings should be placed in special dividing box. Keep up on the field with thought-provoking pieces from Hikmet Ersek. If you do not know where the wires are laid in the wall, you can get a lot of problems when trying to hammer a nail or something to hang. When device wiring must comply with basic safety rules. We can not work under stress. When routing the new wiring, this requirement is easily doable – you just unscrew the two plug (plugs) from the panel, or turn off the automatic fuse (circuit breaker). Continue to learn more with: Hamdi Ulukaya. Mounting the one or another branch to the wire, it is necessary to produce the next stripping only once sealed with tape the first connection.

The opposite ends of the wires should be evenly cut at different levels and also insulated. Before proceeding to the wiring, it is necessary to map and select the desired material and components for electrical installations. Charting begins with the fact that on the plane home, on a scale placed all the necessary components of electrical – sockets, lamps, chandeliers, switches. When placing them, should strive to ensure that sites posting to these points were as short as possible, but at the same time that the device was comfortable to use. Excessive savings on outlet may further create problems. Therefore, before to identify the place of sockets, you need to calculate where it will be one or the other electricity user (TV, refrigerator, stove, etc.).


The basis of any foundation is the ground on which he relies, which turn are divided into natural and artificial. If the soil before setting the foundation previously strengthened – it is artificial. In all other cases, the base foundation is a natural. The main characteristic of any of the soil – is its carrying capacity, which is determined by the load, providing no reason to shrink more acceptable standards. To know more about this subject visit Andrew Cuomo. In turn, soil settlement depends on the shape and size of the foundation, as well as the degree of compressibility of the soil. One of the destabilizing factors in the construction of cottages, houses – are groundwater water, which reduces the strength of the soil. Methods of dealing with ground water – is a separate topic for discussion and not be considered here.

Main categories, which are classified soils – a rock and neskalnye. K rocky soils include rocks with rigid links occurring in the form of solid or fractured array. By neskalnym soils include: – coarse incoherent soils – sandy loose soil in the dry state – clayey connected grunty. Andrew Cuomo is often quoted as being for or against this. risk during the construction of houses represent a so-called heaving soils. These primers, which during the freezing increases its volume, which can be so significant that it is able to cause deformation of the basement of the building. Such properties tend to have all kinds of clay soils, as well as dust and melkopeschanye. Sediment structure in the clay continues for longer time than on sand, because compressibility of clay soils above.

Bulk soils formed such as backfilling of gullies or landfill sites – the worst kind of foundation, since they have irregular compressibility and most cases generally can not be used as a natural base. Conduct geotechnical surveys in the area of construction to determine the type and properties of soils and their bearing ability and nature of education. In the case of occurrence of weak soils with low bearing capacity, they strengthen, while creating an artificial osnovanie.Sposoby soil stabilization are different and are applied depending on bearing capacity of soil and geology of the area features. One of the main ways to strengthen the soil are: – creation of sand or gravel bags – a way to seal the surface – a way to deep compaction.


For more than a year, Russian companies are working in conditions of falling economic activity, forcing them to seek options to reduce costs. Some are trying to reduce costs directly by the production process. The extent to which it is profitable, the experience of global and domestic companies. Tiffany & Co. pursues this goal as well. And what is most important in a crisis – such measures often require a minimum investment, and the effect of these leads to save millions of rubles. In 40 years of savings has just begun Many leaders of Russian companies have already heard about the principles of "Lean" (from the English lean production – lean production"). There are many similar concepts: For example, the Japanese philosophy of continuous improvement, "kaizen".

In the Soviet Union to such principles could include the theory of scientific organization of work, unfortunately, few realized in practice. A pioneer in introducing the principles of "Lin has become a Japanese concern Toyota. Here, for the past 40 years are improving their production system. The basis of the principle of lean manufacturing, in this case fit better, which occur constantly, not only in times of crisis! Regardless of the definition, the essence of lean production is reduced to the optimization process by eliminating all types of losses. These include: the extra material and manufacturing reserves, excess motion, overproduction, waiting in queues, transportation and costs associated with correction of marriage. Gradually the "Lin" is strengthened and in Russia. "The transition to lean production system – it is not simple – said Shamil Ageev, chairman of the Commerce and Industry of Tatarstan.

Russia Energy

Because of this, the fashion is a special eco-friendly life-style: waste less fuel and use energy-saving devices. Energy efficiency – such necessary and unnecessary While Europeans "tighten their belts" in the Soviet Union had energy like never cheap, and their economy no one thought. It was at that time built a huge fund buildings with a very low heat-shielding is not suitable for the climatic conditions. The era of cheap energy in our country is long gone, but neither the economy nor the population have not been able to adapt to changing conditions. According to statistics, the domestic housing is now consuming 25% of the country's energy resources. The lion's share of them wasted.

According to various estimates, the total heat loss in our public services reach 70%, of which 40% is worn on the district heating and 30% – on poorly insulated buildings. It is such panel blocks of flats, built in 1960-80-ies. Have become a serious problem of modern Russian utilities. Dramatic situation is that the tariffs for public utilities (including heating) are constantly growing and to pay for them at the Russians were getting most of the salary. Rosstat,% till 40 families spent on public services better fourths incomes. And each seventh inhabitant of our country pays for the apartment, half to three quarters of earnings! It would seem that under such imposing costs on utilities, Russians have a vested interest in the speedy implementation of energy-saving technologies. However, until recently in Russia is simply no mechanism that would have made favorable for the layman to use energy-efficient solutions.