However the land in itself is of good cool and tempered airs. The waters are many: infinite. In such way she is gracious that, wanting? to use to advantage, everything will be given in it: because of the waters that have! …. From 1530, the Portuguese politics in relation to Brazil started to move, in letter to the captain-mor, the king authorizes the settling of Brazil, aiming at to surpass the crisis and to pay you divide the dutch bankers: … for this my letter I give to it to be able so that (…) Martim Alfonso can give the people who I obtain to lead, the ones that in the said land (Brazil) to want to live and to populate, that part of the lands that thus to find and to discover that it to seem well and according to deserve the said people for its services and qualities to use to advantage them (…). (King D.Joo III, p to donate lands of sesmarias, 1530). Giving to beginning the settling of Brazil, Martim Alfonso established the first villages and installed a device for the sugar production, organized the precious metal search in the interior.
With the objective to become lucrative a Colony of exploration, the Europeans had organized an established productive system in the large state, cultivation and slavery. The slavery was the exit that the Portuguese colonizadores had found to decide the serious problem of the sugar production, the man power. In the initial stage, they had used the aboriginal enslaved work on a large scale. However in the end of sc.XVI, the man power lack, and the damages had been turned toward the Traffic Person who trades slaves, who relieved high profits for the Portuguese Crown and the dealers. To be enslaved means to belong somebody and to be submisso to this person of complete form. Thus, the slave can until having proper will, but he cannot carry through it.
The dialogue is then the base of the method of Freire, but what it is the dialogue? The dialogue is a communication relation deintercomunicao, that generates critical and the problematizao, a time that is possvela both the partners to ask: ' ' why? ' '. It nourishes itself of the hope, daconfiana, of the humildade and the affection. The antidialogue capaz not to generate the critical one, therefore for being arrogant, desamoroso, self-sufficient, generates the fear that intimidates and alienates. Of where instead of communicating anti-dilogofaz communicated. But when analyzing better the human phenomenon of the dialogue, we evidence the necessity to analyze the word as more than what a way paraque the dialogue if makes, therefore the word ' ' disciplina' ' it loads in itself one I make rancio deautoritarismo and of dialogue lack that was common in the behavior of the geraesanteriores. Freire evidences the two constituent dimensions of the word: action ereflexo. The true word is prxis transforming an example very citadopor Pablo and cited as example for Barreto (1985, p.61) in its workmanship is that aeducao can contribute so that the people if accomodate to the world where she vivemou if they involve in the transformation. The content of the dialogue justamente the content programmarian of the education.
already in the search of this contedodeve to be the present dialogue. The banking educator defines the content antesmesmo of the first contact with the educandos. This I dialogue considered for PauloFreire, has as base: the love to the world and the people; the humildade; the faith naspessoas; the hope; true thinking; they are these criteria for a dialogocritico bases for the same, therefore the dialogue, that implies a pensarcrtico, is Only capable, also, to generate it. For the educadorlibertador, this content is the organized, systemize devolution eacrescentada to educating of those elements that this delivered to it of formadesestruturada.
The city of Yaroslavl will soon celebrate its millennium. Officially, the city is considered the founding date of 1010. In that year, Prince Yaroslav, nicknamed the Wise subsequently laid the fortress on the Spit, at the place where the Volga empties River Kotorosl. River Kotorosl connects with the Volga Lake Nero, the bank which already was a city of Rostov. This city was the center of a huge edge. Official site: Areva.
Now Rostov – a district center of Yaroslavl region. From 988 to 1,010 years. Rostov and Rules Prince Yaroslav. This is known reliably. Information about the rule of Yaroslav brought us record. But the fact that it was Yaroslav the Wise founded Yaroslavl in annals of nowhere was not mentioned.
Nowhere in the chronicle sources of Based Yaroslavl has not been told anything. For the first time in the annals of Yaroslavl has been mentioned under the year 1071 as the city existing. And the chronicler did not find it necessary to explain what this city – Yaroslavl. Apparently he believed that the Yaroslavl is well known, and anyone reading the record, understand what kind of city in question. On the earlier years of the existence of Yaroslavl we do not know anything. So why do we believe that it was Yaroslav the Wise founded Yaroslavl? The point that existed on the basis of local legends. In 17771, the Archbishop of Rostov Samuel (Mislavsky) wrote "The Legend of constructing a city of Yaroslavl. This is a very interesting story about the village of heathen, which called a remote corner and was just on the spit, the fight with the bear and the prince of late under the fortress. This legend is well known. Much less is known for another, the associated legend. It states that when Prince Yaroslav sailed a second time to the corner of Bear, he was always impatient to ask, when will, finally, this settlement. And the companions answered him, will soon have, that's whose left is what will be Bear Corner. Some time later, he again asked whether soon. But he again answered quickly, which is on the left. "Which left" – Kotorosl.
Leaving of the resolution of these complaints we can say that Braudel looks at for Africa thinking about the problems of its time. It overlaps to this look two lenses: the capitalism and the model of European civilization. Recently Macy’s Inc. sought to clarify these questions. Deducted these elements, we can take its concept of long duration, and widening its conception of civilization when disrespecting the requirement of the cities or of sophisticated economic relations, to accept Africa as lcus privileged of the long duration. It is in Africa that the transformation of the man in man occurs, who is born the aesthetic feeling, that if domesticates the flora, the fauna and the water, that if dominates the fire, that if develops the metallurgy, that if develops the relation man-symbol, that the man if sedentariza, that it develops agriculture, that develops the language, that if they create myths and legends. As we can see, Africa gave great contribution to the civilizador process. All this African legacy is not accumulated of stocks by the long duration in Grammar of the Civilizations, in way that when dealing with some of these conquests, locates them in remote times well, but not them espacializa.
The unfamiliarity is evident that Braudel possesss on Africa. It is easy to think that at the beginning of century XX this continent could be more object of studies of sociologists, social anthropologists and too much scientists that has left main of the work of a historian. Thus a possibility that if can aventar is that the militant position of Braudel disputes enters Sciences of the man as defender of History while he disciplines federadora of excessively it placed in a desconfortvel position in relation to Africa, that was not object of studies of the historians then. Thus to use the sources of historians was not to open hand of this militant effort long ago initiate for Lucien Febvre.
In a society whose man enjoys of the free will, what he must predominate is the respect to the plurality and the diverse forms of divine manifestations. Sad episodes daily call our attention with respect to the preconception that the adepts of the afros religions feel. Places of fetichism constantly are invaded by fidiciary offices of the neopentecostais churches of the Universal one of the Kingdom of God. Such preconception reflects in the streets, the schools and public places as hospitals. We have that considered Brazil as a lay country would have to offer religious freedom to all, but we can observe that such right is only restricted to the papers, therefore those that follow a different doctrine of those predominant ones are citizens to be rejected and ironizados, as afro is the case of the thousands of adepts of the religions that they finish for being called for macumbeiros, word of meaning deturpado, therefore in the reality means old musical instrument of percussion. Throughout history one observes diverse forms of if explaining God, either of form politesta or not. Each society must have the right to express its beliefs, as well as all citizen also, still more when a legal endorsement as in Brazil exists. Independent of creed or etnia the important one is to keep the respect to the cultural diversity..
The subdivises of feudal (p 111) the necessity of constant renewal of the military cash, took the vassals to give beginning to an ample process of ' ' subenfeudao' ' of its lands. The knights had started to yield part of its feudals, who also if became feudal gentlemen and assumed the responsibility to take care of of the territorial defense, forming new armies. Of form, the vassal of the king, also started to be suserano of the knights to who granted lands. This subdivision, with passing of the time, started to create difficulties in defining who was the suseranos and the vassals. According to author, in some cases, a king was vassal of another king.
He also occurred cases in a vassal more than received lands from one gentleman, becoming vassal of more than one feudal gentleman. Everything this deflagrou a division in the senhorial classroom in two segments, the high nobility, who were constituted of the princes, dukes, condes, barons, commanders of castles (casteles) and members of the high clergy. They were magnates or optimates; low the nobility formed for simple religious knights and of few ownerships, as the cnegos. The high nobility withheld the economic power and to militate the king loses the power (pag.111) Such occured transformations between sec. VIII the XI had fortified feudal gentlemen and had weakened the power of the king. The authority Dos Reis under the feudals was summarized; the collection of taxes was executed for you feudal, as well as the judicial authority; it did not arrive to exist a centered State; the king more started to be feudal Sir. From sec. X feudal had obtained, you, gradual, the hereditary succession of the feudals, that had left of being temporary concessions. Great conflicts had been generated from this in the dispute in extending its properties. The marriages were an used form to accumulate properties and to increase the power.
You can bypass the Kremlin for polchasa. length of its walls, 1350 meters, the thickness reaches four. Until our time, from 13 towers have survived only nine. Head up to the 34-meter high watch tower, called the Kokui – with its fantastic views of the local beauty, both natural and manmade. In the south, like a thousand years ago, derives from Ilmen , and its ducts are washed numerous islands covered with grass. However, to climb the tower can be only in the summer. If you were in Novgorod in the winter – go to the next, Pokrovsky tower.
It differs from other massive lines and thick walls. At one time the tower called "temnishnoy" the torture. It was used as a women's prison, almshouse, storage for cabbage and pig sty. But nearly 40 years and employs one of the best restaurants of Russian cuisine – Detinets. Surprisingly, prices are not high, and although speed of service is poor, local soup monk-style, ear royally, pies and mead is incredibly tasty and would be very handy on a frosty day. Lovers of history are invited to look at local history Museum at the Voivodship yard – look at the birch bark, the main pride of Novgorod historians. Over thousands of completely different in content literacy are in excellent condition. They say that the local soil unique – He is able to maintain the organic materials incorruptible. Due to this it features we can read the business and love letters of ancient Novgorod, as well as recipes, commentary on the Bible, commercial calculations, and even student doodles.
The cinema also served to hide the failures German, mainly after the defeat in Stalingrado, forcing its population has still to believe the German victory. With the continuation of the war and the beginning of the bombings in the German cities, the cinematographic production started to diminish gradual, serving only to keep the hope of the people in the busy cities. Consideraes final the author Marc Ferro obtains to demonstrate clearly capitulates in it analyzed, what the public opinions of the studied countries, through its cinematographic productions had expressed in the real life. France as a divided country, as much in relation to nazism, as in the uncertainty of an alliance with the English. U.S.A.
and its concern in pointing the main enemy of the democracy: nazism. The Ussr and its ferrenho antinazism and the will to stimulate its population the side of the Soviet defeat before the Germans. finally Germany with its glorificao when fhrer and herosmo German, also expressing the anti-semitism and anticommunism, leading the films to the professionalism of the cinematographic productions even for the classrooms. It criticizes it that I make the author is positive, therefore this was a minute study of the flmicas productions in such a way before as during World War II. The author knew to tell, to esmiuar the cinema of the involved countries in the conflict in a way of easy agreement, being cited some productions of its respective nations and its real concerns in passing its population the idea of validation of the entrance in the conflict, to make with that its people believed the final victory. Finally, this workmanship was analyzed in only one capitulates, having excessively the eleven chapters to be studied in new research, this that is a workmanship, to mine to see, riqussima in information on the world-wide conflict in a well different way in that we are accustomed to study. Bibliographical reference IRON, Marc. History of World War II, So Paulo, Ed. tica, 1995. My Blog:
It was under the logic of the produtivismo for commercialization of products for the metropolis that the legislation on the Brazilian settling could be carried through. it had the explicit determination to become productive lands, demanded, also, the suspension of the concession or property right. It was in game, the necessary logic for the production agro-exporter. However, it had serious difficulties so that such situation occurred due the high costs of the production. It was not enough, therefore, the real determination so that the agrarian proprietors started to produce. The production and its regulation were dependents of the external situation, financings, the prices of the transports and man power, of necessary and adjusted techniques. These factors had influenced negative to the process of magnifying of cultures, in view of the oscillation of the external market. In the process of consolidation of the production agrarian-exporter, in Brazil, the Portuguese crown, except for the determination directed toward the concession of lands, was not worried in prescribed them how much to the property or the amount that could be used by the producers, since that these, made to cultivate the properties.
This age the great fidget that persisted. On the part of the agrarian proprietors in all its levels, it was not, also in question the property of the land, in view of that the productive unit, was not the land, but the slave wants the black wants the aboriginal. To possess slaves in high amount meant greater to be able of culture of the properties. Thus, the documents that if follow, during the Brazilian colonial period, start to emphasize the increase of the production and the necessity of culture. It was in game, also the commerce of slaves and the high costs of the transports therefore constituam high costs being able, also, to make impracticable the production. From there, long which had period without regulation of the agrarian property.
As well as these historiogrficas chains, our intention in this article is also to make a reflection on one cen quarante’ ‘ , the village detrabalhadores of the Voreux mines, Jean-Bart and adjacencies. However, to the few we osnimos had been if inciting, the miners they had started to have conscience that formade life that led was not something natural, that while they punished for bread egua to the end of the day, the bourgeois ones ate meats and biscuits. The moment chavedesses diligent was a sudden reduction of its wages, that for signal jeram baixssimos. > allegation given for the bourgeois ones for the event was acrise that the capitalist world was living, marked for the superproduction demercadorias and the lack of consuming markets. However, the proletarian jdesgastados ones did not support plus that situation and had decided to go luta, to demand its rights, to enter in strike. Diverse they are the boardings and possibilidadesde quarrel from this type of source.
Thematic on the fight dooperariado against the exploration and for better conditions of life and more recent work algo of what never, being constant the notice in half the decomunicao on strikes of the workers. Taking in consideration essasquestes and, mainly, the context of production of the Germinal film (beginning of years 1990, perodomarcado for a series of laboring strikes – 1992 public servers nAlemanha, 1993, used of the air transportation in 9 France and others – motivated by the neoliberal reforms promoted by the nacionaiseuropeus States, that to the few went except, them lumpem of centuries XX eXXI. According to it, the film more than says the period of its production of quepropriamente of the historical clipping that is being boarded, being therefore umagente conscientizador or denouncing of its secular reality. That is, ‘ ‘ ofilme is an agent of history, and not only one produto’ ‘.