2.Drevnerimsky calendar. Originally the Roman calendar consisted of 304 days divided by 10 months and the start date of the new year was considered March 1. Later this calendar has undergone many reforms, in particular, we added two additional months, and has changed the date of the new year with the first March on Jan. 1. 3.Yuliansky calendar was established by Julius Caesar, which attempted to link the calendar dates of seasonal phenomena of nature. Julius introduced the duration of the year, equal to 365.25 days.
According to the Julian calendar, every four years comes a leap year, whose duration is 366 sunny days. Orientation to the solar cycle it possible to avoid unnecessary "Inserts" in the calendar (except for leap year), as well as to bring the calendar dates to the natural cycle. 4.Grigoriansky calendar. Creation of the Gregorian calendar was linked to the name of Pope Gregory xiii and designated as the introduction of a "new style" instead of "Old Style" (Julian calendar). The main purpose of reform is to return the actual date of the vernal equinox – March 21, established during the time of the Council of Nicaea, approving paschalion. The Gregorian calendar as closely as possible approximate the tropical year, the difference is only 26 seconds. The Gregorian calendar was introduced in Russia in 1918. Virtually all existing calendars are based on the cyclical movement of the two celestial bodies – the Moon and the Sun. Additional information at Rachel Crane supports this article.
In this regard, the following types of calendars. 1.Lunny calendar. He is the oldest of all the existing calendars. The basis of the lunar calendar is a periodic change of the lunar phases, the so-called synodic months equal to 29.53 days. Thus, the total length of the lunar year is 354.37 days. The main disadvantage of this calendar is that it does not account for the fractional part, and for every 30 years of accumulated surplus to 11 days. This requires an additional "spots" in the calendar for the elimination of the emerging differences. A typical example is the Muslim lunar calendar Calendar. 2.Solnechny calendar associated with the annual solar cycle and has a length of 365.24 days. To troubleshoot the error every four years, introduced a special leap year containing the extra day. Key dates, which are oriented like the calendar are the days of equinox and solstice sun. Most modern calendars are solar. 3.Lunno-solar calendar. This is an attempt agreement and finding the relationship between two cycles – the lunar and solar. Quite complicated as in the calculations, and in the application. For example, to eliminate the discrepancies are used to add every two or three years of additional thirteenth month. An example of the lunar-solar calendar is the Jewish calendar. Thus, the calendar is the indispensable man for many millennia and has not lost its importance and to this day. Stylish calendar – it is an integral part of business image, as well as an important attribute of modern life. You can do it yourself using a graphics editor Design Calendar by ams Software. This is a handy program for create a calendar of professional quality. Just select the style calendar, add a photo and an original 2011 calendar is ready! Colorful calendar with photos – this is a great gift for any occasion!
Leaving of the resolution of these complaints we can say that Braudel looks at for Africa thinking about the problems of its time. It overlaps to this look two lenses: the capitalism and the model of European civilization. Recently Macy’s Inc. sought to clarify these questions. Deducted these elements, we can take its concept of long duration, and widening its conception of civilization when disrespecting the requirement of the cities or of sophisticated economic relations, to accept Africa as lcus privileged of the long duration. It is in Africa that the transformation of the man in man occurs, who is born the aesthetic feeling, that if domesticates the flora, the fauna and the water, that if dominates the fire, that if develops the metallurgy, that if develops the relation man-symbol, that the man if sedentariza, that it develops agriculture, that develops the language, that if they create myths and legends. As we can see, Africa gave great contribution to the civilizador process. All this African legacy is not accumulated of stocks by the long duration in Grammar of the Civilizations, in way that when dealing with some of these conquests, locates them in remote times well, but not them espacializa.
The unfamiliarity is evident that Braudel possesss on Africa. It is easy to think that at the beginning of century XX this continent could be more object of studies of sociologists, social anthropologists and too much scientists that has left main of the work of a historian. Thus a possibility that if can aventar is that the militant position of Braudel disputes enters Sciences of the man as defender of History while he disciplines federadora of excessively it placed in a desconfortvel position in relation to Africa, that was not object of studies of the historians then. Thus to use the sources of historians was not to open hand of this militant effort long ago initiate for Lucien Febvre.
In a society whose man enjoys of the free will, what he must predominate is the respect to the plurality and the diverse forms of divine manifestations. Sad episodes daily call our attention with respect to the preconception that the adepts of the afros religions feel. Places of fetichism constantly are invaded by fidiciary offices of the neopentecostais churches of the Universal one of the Kingdom of God. Such preconception reflects in the streets, the schools and public places as hospitals. We have that considered Brazil as a lay country would have to offer religious freedom to all, but we can observe that such right is only restricted to the papers, therefore those that follow a different doctrine of those predominant ones are citizens to be rejected and ironizados, as afro is the case of the thousands of adepts of the religions that they finish for being called for macumbeiros, word of meaning deturpado, therefore in the reality means old musical instrument of percussion. Throughout history one observes diverse forms of if explaining God, either of form politesta or not. Each society must have the right to express its beliefs, as well as all citizen also, still more when a legal endorsement as in Brazil exists. Independent of creed or etnia the important one is to keep the respect to the cultural diversity..
The subdivises of feudal (p 111) the necessity of constant renewal of the military cash, took the vassals to give beginning to an ample process of ' ' subenfeudao' ' of its lands. The knights had started to yield part of its feudals, who also if became feudal gentlemen and assumed the responsibility to take care of of the territorial defense, forming new armies. Of form, the vassal of the king, also started to be suserano of the knights to who granted lands. This subdivision, with passing of the time, started to create difficulties in defining who was the suseranos and the vassals. According to author, in some cases, a king was vassal of another king.
He also occurred cases in a vassal more than received lands from one gentleman, becoming vassal of more than one feudal gentleman. Everything this deflagrou a division in the senhorial classroom in two segments, the high nobility, who were constituted of the princes, dukes, condes, barons, commanders of castles (casteles) and members of the high clergy. They were magnates or optimates; low the nobility formed for simple religious knights and of few ownerships, as the cnegos. The high nobility withheld the economic power and to militate the king loses the power (pag.111) Such occured transformations between sec. VIII the XI had fortified feudal gentlemen and had weakened the power of the king. The authority Dos Reis under the feudals was summarized; the collection of taxes was executed for you feudal, as well as the judicial authority; it did not arrive to exist a centered State; the king more started to be feudal Sir. From sec. X feudal had obtained, you, gradual, the hereditary succession of the feudals, that had left of being temporary concessions. Great conflicts had been generated from this in the dispute in extending its properties. The marriages were an used form to accumulate properties and to increase the power.
You can bypass the Kremlin for polchasa. length of its walls, 1350 meters, the thickness reaches four. Until our time, from 13 towers have survived only nine. Head up to the 34-meter high watch tower, called the Kokui – with its fantastic views of the local beauty, both natural and manmade. In the south, like a thousand years ago, derives from Ilmen , and its ducts are washed numerous islands covered with grass. However, to climb the tower can be only in the summer. If you were in Novgorod in the winter – go to the next, Pokrovsky tower.
It differs from other massive lines and thick walls. At one time the tower called "temnishnoy" the torture. It was used as a women's prison, almshouse, storage for cabbage and pig sty. But nearly 40 years and employs one of the best restaurants of Russian cuisine – Detinets. Surprisingly, prices are not high, and although speed of service is poor, local soup monk-style, ear royally, pies and mead is incredibly tasty and would be very handy on a frosty day. Lovers of history are invited to look at local history Museum at the Voivodship yard – look at the birch bark, the main pride of Novgorod historians. Over thousands of completely different in content literacy are in excellent condition. They say that the local soil unique – He is able to maintain the organic materials incorruptible. Due to this it features we can read the business and love letters of ancient Novgorod, as well as recipes, commentary on the Bible, commercial calculations, and even student doodles.
The cinema also served to hide the failures German, mainly after the defeat in Stalingrado, forcing its population has still to believe the German victory. With the continuation of the war and the beginning of the bombings in the German cities, the cinematographic production started to diminish gradual, serving only to keep the hope of the people in the busy cities. Consideraes final the author Marc Ferro obtains to demonstrate clearly capitulates in it analyzed, what the public opinions of the studied countries, through its cinematographic productions had expressed in the real life. France as a divided country, as much in relation to nazism, as in the uncertainty of an alliance with the English. U.S.A.
and its concern in pointing the main enemy of the democracy: nazism. The Ussr and its ferrenho antinazism and the will to stimulate its population the side of the Soviet defeat before the Germans. finally Germany with its glorificao when fhrer and herosmo German, also expressing the anti-semitism and anticommunism, leading the films to the professionalism of the cinematographic productions even for the classrooms. It criticizes it that I make the author is positive, therefore this was a minute study of the flmicas productions in such a way before as during World War II. The author knew to tell, to esmiuar the cinema of the involved countries in the conflict in a way of easy agreement, being cited some productions of its respective nations and its real concerns in passing its population the idea of validation of the entrance in the conflict, to make with that its people believed the final victory. Finally, this workmanship was analyzed in only one capitulates, having excessively the eleven chapters to be studied in new research, this that is a workmanship, to mine to see, riqussima in information on the world-wide conflict in a well different way in that we are accustomed to study. Bibliographical reference IRON, Marc. History of World War II, So Paulo, Ed. tica, 1995. My Blog:
It was under the logic of the produtivismo for commercialization of products for the metropolis that the legislation on the Brazilian settling could be carried through. it had the explicit determination to become productive lands, demanded, also, the suspension of the concession or property right. It was in game, the necessary logic for the production agro-exporter. However, it had serious difficulties so that such situation occurred due the high costs of the production. It was not enough, therefore, the real determination so that the agrarian proprietors started to produce. The production and its regulation were dependents of the external situation, financings, the prices of the transports and man power, of necessary and adjusted techniques. These factors had influenced negative to the process of magnifying of cultures, in view of the oscillation of the external market. In the process of consolidation of the production agrarian-exporter, in Brazil, the Portuguese crown, except for the determination directed toward the concession of lands, was not worried in prescribed them how much to the property or the amount that could be used by the producers, since that these, made to cultivate the properties.
This age the great fidget that persisted. On the part of the agrarian proprietors in all its levels, it was not, also in question the property of the land, in view of that the productive unit, was not the land, but the slave wants the black wants the aboriginal. To possess slaves in high amount meant greater to be able of culture of the properties. Thus, the documents that if follow, during the Brazilian colonial period, start to emphasize the increase of the production and the necessity of culture. It was in game, also the commerce of slaves and the high costs of the transports therefore constituam high costs being able, also, to make impracticable the production. From there, long which had period without regulation of the agrarian property.
As well as these historiogrficas chains, our intention in this article is also to make a reflection on one cen quarante’ ‘ , the village detrabalhadores of the Voreux mines, Jean-Bart and adjacencies. However, to the few we osnimos had been if inciting, the miners they had started to have conscience that formade life that led was not something natural, that while they punished for bread egua to the end of the day, the bourgeois ones ate meats and biscuits. The moment chavedesses diligent was a sudden reduction of its wages, that for signal jeram baixssimos. > allegation given for the bourgeois ones for the event was acrise that the capitalist world was living, marked for the superproduction demercadorias and the lack of consuming markets. However, the proletarian jdesgastados ones did not support plus that situation and had decided to go luta, to demand its rights, to enter in strike. Diverse they are the boardings and possibilidadesde quarrel from this type of source.
Thematic on the fight dooperariado against the exploration and for better conditions of life and more recent work algo of what never, being constant the notice in half the decomunicao on strikes of the workers. Taking in consideration essasquestes and, mainly, the context of production of the Germinal film (beginning of years 1990, perodomarcado for a series of laboring strikes – 1992 public servers nAlemanha, 1993, used of the air transportation in 9 France and others – motivated by the neoliberal reforms promoted by the nacionaiseuropeus States, that to the few went except, them lumpem of centuries XX eXXI. According to it, the film more than says the period of its production of quepropriamente of the historical clipping that is being boarded, being therefore umagente conscientizador or denouncing of its secular reality. That is, ‘ ‘ ofilme is an agent of history, and not only one produto’ ‘.