The fractionation of the Teodulo Lopez Melendez Estado world and nation roughly a State implies a territory relatively well defined, a population and a central Government that exercises sovereignty. A nation is a social and cultural entity formed by people who share a historical experience and the desire to live together. So a nation-State is a territory where a population of common characteristics shared a collective destiny and for which has a central power. The nation-State finds its origins in the European 15th century. In some cases the State I think the nation through the exercise of power by a central authority that was proposed to build a national identity. In other cases the nation believe the State, since linguistic common ties or other cultural particularities led them to seek legal ways of staying. The nation-State as we know it today was born in the 19th century, given that the so-called divine law according to which the authority of monarchs descended was previously existing directly from God.
It is what has been called the monarchical absolutism, with highest expression in the 16th and 17TH centuries. Then, especially in the 18th century, will make efforts to deal with the population in what has been called enlightened despotism. Peasants, landowners, bourgeoisie and aristocrats were moving under an order established by various feudal systems while the sovereign maintained status and customary law. Appears in scene rationalism, new production techniques called capitalism and new administrative forms called bureaucracy. I.e., no longer are you going to the Bible but won’t be man and arises that a science of man can develop. Fundamental as Hobbes and Locke characters come into action. No longer accepts the divine origin and are required to replace it with a rational and limited contract between rulers and ruled. Appears as a fundamental means of exchange money, but this topic belongs to the history of capitalism and us only interest us as an element in the process ranging from the destruction of the old feudal order towards the birth of the nation-State.