It was in the 13th and 14th centuries A.d. the wool trade, which brought wealth to the region and the city of Leiden. 1266 A.d. already received Suffering the city rights. In the 15th century, then various disagreements between leaders initiated a decline of the town as well economically. In the eighty years war, the town against the Spaniards turned. After the expulsion of the Spaniards (3 October 1574) a carrot stew in the abandoned positions of the Spaniards found on mythical kind, bringing the city’s population could be fed.
Due to the steadfastness, the first University of the Republic was founded on a decision by the Government in Leiden. After the liberation, many Protestants fled suffering from other cities. It is the time in which the city walls had to be expanded continuously and a scientific and cultural diversity are becoming more significant suffering left. By the same author: Hewlett Packard Enterprise Co.. Well-known figures such as the painter Rembrandt have chosen to their place of residence condition. After the 17th century, the demise of suffering occurred.
Despite the aspirations of the cities suffering around (Rotterdam, Amsterdam or the Hague), Leiden but remained a stronghold of science. Attractions in Leiden – Holland – Netherlands Haarlem the founding of Haarlem goes back to smaller settlements, whose founding date can not be dated. Haarlem became the accommodation city for travellers between South and North Holland. Haarlem received the town privileges in 1245. The early granting of privilege is probably also due to many city dwellers took part in the year 1217 and 1219 on a crusade. The origin of the coat of arms (Cross and sword) dates back to this time. In 1429, Haarlem received the customs legislation. Textile manufacturers, shipbuilders and breweries settled in Haarlem. in 1573 was the fortress of Haarlem on the Spaniard. The city received in the year 1577 ad, after Protestants and Catholics equal rights were granted their freedom.