This summary has as base the book of Jose Carlos Kings, History & Theory, alado in the sub-chapters with the subjects: Modernity and history-knowledge, pags. 36 the 42; After-modernity, pags. 42 the 53; After-modernity and history-knowledge, pags. 53 the 62, of 1 section. This book was published by publishing company FGV of Rio De Janeiro, with editions in the 2003, 2005, 2006 and finally Reimpresso in 2007, that it is the edition that we are using. In this resenhado text, Jose Carlos Kings, makes a boarding on the ways of the historiografia in century XVIII, where he predominated the philosophy and the historical Reason. He also walks in century XIX, where history wants to emancipate itself for historical Science. Passing finally to century XX, where he can be distinguished two distinct phases of History: in the first part, a History-science, that invigorates in the first half of the century, and, in the second part, Anti-science in History, or Anti-history in the science, that if passes in the end of century.
The workmanship of Jose Carlos Kings, History & Theory, this divided in 21 chapters, under three sections. In the first section, Kings, make what we can call description of the History of the history, that if deals with one analyzes on the historiogrfico development in the world occidental person. In the second section the focus is in the great fall of History, passing of a global History to a micron-history, or as Kings the flame, ' ' history in migalhas' '. in to the third analyzes it section if it concentrates in the study of the Logic and its problematic one and in trying to establish as the historical knowledge has been argued in recent years. In the three chapters, that we base this summary, Jose Carlos Kings, retraces to century XIX, where the history-knowledge leaves of side its philosophical bias and becomes ' ' cientifica' '.
In the work with infantile patients, some referring concepts to the humanizao of the hospital environment must be considered. They are necessary efforts stops to diminish the physical and psychic suffering of the hospitalized child, considering that this is a being closely dependent of another being, that at that moment, also suffers with the appearance of the disease. This can be seen as an attack to the organism as a whole, also in the emotional aspect, that is sufficiently engaged. must therefore – be attempted against for some factors of the hospitalization situation, rethink attendance models that aim at the minimizao of the suffering of the hospitalized child, having as principle the promotion of the health. I officiate of the clown says it of the effort the man of if delivering to the only possible condition of existence: of the relation the human being. It reconnects in them to this potentiality and the essence of the medicine, this fascinating universe for which walks our imaginary on life and death, for where they circulate affection and desires printed matters in the bodies. Space where the directions of the look, to hear and to touch make to circulate these events.
The humanizao in the health institutions it constitutes, throughout years, a successful partnership between artists and professionals of the health, stimulating important alterations in relation ace hospitalized children: positive change in the behavior, greater contribution with examinations and treatments, improves in the communication, reduction of the anxiety with the internment and eventual surgical interventions. To evaluate the repercussion of ' ' palhao' ' in the hospital environment, ' ' Doctors of alegria' ' in partner with the Institute Source for the Social Development they had carried through in 2007 and 2008 qualitative and quantitative research next to professionals of health in hospitals of So Paulo and Rio De Janeiro. According to given of this research 85.4% of the children they present clinical evidences of improvement after to receive the visit from the clowns, in relation to the health professionals, 49.5% of the team are coesa and 45.8% opened space in the team to say itself of delicate and sensible questions.