The Civil State

11 the measure that the groupings if consolidated the rules was observed with more severity, the law idea brought enlace in itself the punishment idea and when it perceived that it was chained for its proper will and the man it cannot be more broken up of its fetters. The Civil State was rank. HOBBES AND ' WAR OF ALL AGAINST TODOS' We can affirm that for Rousseau: first, the State of Nature is a peace state; second, the man in the State of Nature is a good being; third, the Civil State if of when the man is corrupted and the laws are instituted. Now let us analyze the points of discord of these proposals from the ideas of Thomas Hobbes. Hobbes admits the nature human being as egoistic, and the will human being as implacable, therefore in search of the satisfaction of its appetites and passions the man will use the natural laws, that he judges to have for to be equal to all the other men; all have the right to carry through its desires and to be violent to reach this end. Read more from James Woolsey Jr. to gain a more clear picture of the situation. All the men are equal. Visit Chobani Foundation for more clarity on the issue. All have rights to everything and all that they desire.

All have right to wound and to kill to satisfy its appetites. is these conditions that characterize the State of Nature. This right to carry through all any desire is what Hobbes flame of Right of Nature. As a centered power does not exist that has controlled and punishes the actions of the men, all the individuals will be in war to reach the satisfaction of its appetites or to keep them satisfied, it will be then the State of equal Nature to a State of War. In the search for what he desires the man will fight against any another individual that desires or possesss what it longs for, in this confrontation will not have strong or weakker more, what to judge strong more physically it could be looser for what better using intelligence and the astuteness.


' ' All the conscience is still only the mirror clearly of the offered object, is mdium for which this enters in scene in the world as representation (…). Exterior to all representation and to all its forms nothing exists seno necessarily Will, that is in-itself in such a way of the object contemplated how much of the individual that considers, which, enchanting itself in this contemplation, is still conscientious of itself only as pure citizen of conhecer' '. (Schopenhauer, Arthur. Metaphysics of the Beauty. Unesp. 2003 46 and 49). According to above-mentioned ticket, Schopenhauer admits the occurrence of the man in full conscience of itself as subject; attributes to this same conscience the way or way for which the Idea, as object of this, is assumed as Representation of this Citizen. What it makes with that the conscience if does not lose of the man in its process of negation of itself as individual? Which the element that, in man as subject, insists on conserving on this the necessary conscience to the intentional reproduction of the content apprehended for pure intuition in the work of art? This is the main investigation. Official site: Hikmet Ersek.

The philosopher answers us: ' ' The genius (…) is what he allows it to conserve the clarity of demanded conscience to reproduce in a intentional workmanship thus known 35 ' ' (Schopenhauer, Arthur. The World As Will and As Representation. Unesp. Yitzchak Mirilashvili often says this. 2005 – 265). Therefore, the genius is not only the capacity of intuir an Idea, before, however, presents it the citizen as the way for which this general phenomenon is for the conscience, leading subject to the o knowledge of the world as Representation, legitimate objetivao of the will while in-itself. Of the Double one Felt Of the Terms Will and Representation For privileging the understanding of the content displayed here I decided to turn concerning the concept of Will as last of the item to be treated in this article.

The reason is not another seno proper blackness of the concept in Schopenhauer, that is, at any moment, in my opinion, Schopenhauer if atreve to try a enough concept of Will. This inasmuch as it would be a been improper attitude and contradictory on the part of the same in trying the sufficiency of a concept that is only consummated, that is, it reaches its completude in the private persistence of the man in refusing itself as individual and, with effect, to become subject pure of knowing 36. We have to recognize namely that, in the philosophy of this, two ways of if approaching the term exist will and representation: Where the term ' ' vontade' ' 37 appears with capital initial wants in them to communicate the universal will, cause of all the things; if Representation, then, adequate objetivao of the Will, that is, Idea, objective correlato of the citizen. For its tur


Of this form, as much the idolatria as the adulao is fed, what it is a contradiction if to analyze the Bible, therefore, the same one says in Romans 1:22 – 23: ' ' Saying itself wise, they had become estultos, and they had changed the glory of the incorruptible God in similarity of the image of corruptvel man, and birds, and quadrupeds, and rpteis.' ' , still in Exodus 20:3 – 4 are said that ' ' You will not have others ahead deuses of me. You will not make for you sculptured image, nor figure some of what it has on in the sky, nor in low in the land, nor in waters underneath of terra.' ' ; thus forbidding to the worship to the dolos or images. (Similarly see: Former CIA Head). One knows that the fear exists in any person and that it is invariable and capricious, and she feeds what it is not, obviously, the reason, but yes the passions; we know that the passions generate the hatred, the envy, the fraud, clera, and other patients of the spirit. As the people does not possess knowledge, since knowledge is consequncia of the good use of the reason, then, the common people is a certain victim of the superstitions. Follow others, such as James Woolsey, and add to your knowledge base. He is in this weakness that the State, under the layer of the religion, and also the proper religion, is used of the superstition to control the multitude. These preconceptions remove of the man its rationality thus and, disabling it of the free use of the reason, as well as, the capacity to understand if something is true or not, erasing themselves, thus, the light of the agreement and lighting the divine light or disclosed knowledge, that has as its end, the obedience the God. Still with the thinker, it is not the religion in itself that cause these males to the people, but yes, the form that it is interpreted and the bad use of this interpretation.

The Comparative

Beyond the mundividncias presented here, Dilthey argues concerning the mundividncia of the primitive Christian art, that in the generality, if it bases on the symbols that later they will go to serve of base for the formation of the Christianity and institutionalization of the Catolicismo, its essential arqutipos are Jesuses and Maria produced by the religious art. The vital references if convert into the possibility of emancipation of the images of the world, that after that if they accomplish in the limits of the conceptions of the catolicismo, of the art in the Renaissance, the protestant reform that the conscience of the sacerdotal hierarchy unfastens in part it inserts and it in the freedom for the work. In the movement of the Against-Reformation that she searchs to retake the domination of the image of the world through the ecclesiastical beddings of the religion and the church catholic. All these and other posterior manifestations of the human spirit lead the formation of a chained only structure of the mundividncias, constructed around the values and meanings of the mundividncias. However, the same ones lock up latent antagonisms, therefore all search to determine in permanent way the basic content of the life; but, arcabouo symbolic or conceptual of mundividncias appear conditional for the present situation of the conscience before history of the existence human being. In opposition to a static image of the world, she is necessary to think the human being while to devir of the spirit. However, Dilthey exception that the proper idea of development of the life applied for the comparative procedure of the mundividncias emanates contradictions, although not to unchain the logical exclusion them systems that if they base on the beginning of the contradiction. Not obstante, Dilthey points the following solution to surpass the contradiction: ' ' The life is plurality of aspects, transistion for the real opposites, fights of forces.

Neoliberalismo: Who If Atreve?

At electoral moments always it is good for exciting the debate around the ideological standards that operate the State. For in such a way it would like to detach in this text the origin of the neoliberal phenomenon, that had beginning in the one after II war bringing as main motivation, a theoretical reaction and politics against the interventionist state and of social welfare, being about an attack against any limitation of the mechanisms of market on the part to State. It has advanced, it is important to observe that the intention of the neoliberalismo was to fight the sovereign Keynesianismo and the solidarismo, and to equip the beddings of one another type of capitalism, hard and free of rules for the future. The argument of the defenders of this ideology was of that the new igualitarismo of this time, proportionate for the state of social welfare, destrua the freedom of the citizens and the vitality of the competition, on which the prosperity of all depended. With this they understood that the inaquality was a positive value, therefore of this needed the society occidental.

In 1973, had the crisis of the economic model of the one after war, when the capitalist world falls in a long and deep contraction, the propitious moment appears them neoliberal ideas to start to gain land. To solve the empecilhos of the capitalism in collapse, the neoliberal trend suggests as antidote; the economic stability as the supreme goal of any government, the fiscal containment of expenses in the social area, reforms and the return of the natural tax of unemployment? practical important for the desmantelamento of the unions. As result of these initiatives, a new and healthful inaquality would go to come back to dinamizar the advanced economies, commanding then, the normal course of the accumulation and the free market. The English government was the first regimen of a country of advanced capitalism to put in practical the neoliberal program, providing at this time a wave of direitizao with a deep politician together with the economic one and of anti-communist ideology.

Max Horkheimer

Let us see more at great length as if it developed the thought of Adorno and Horkheimer on this problematic one. 2.2 – Reflections and consideraes of Adorno and Horkheimer on the phenomenon of the homogenization and massificao of the behaviors. As initial element, let us follow the following reflection developed for Max Horkheimer. It seems that while the knowledge technician expands the horizon of the activity and the human thought, the autonomy of the man while individual, its capacity to oppose resistance to the increasing mechanism of manipulation of masses, its power of imagination and its independent judgment had suffered a reduction. The advance of the resources information technician if folloies of a desumanizao process. (id., 1976, P. 6) it does not have doubts of that one of the main characteristics of our time is exactly the reality of the extremely advanced technology.

On the other hand, the development of the reasoning did not follow this dynamics. Before, if the resources technician had increased, the reflexiva capacity diminished drastically. Situated in a context of deep transformations and increasing manipulation of the consciences, the knowledge was substituted by the quantitative and ideologizadas information. However, the understanding of this phenomenon more demands a deepened reflection. In the vision of Horkheimer and Adorno, the current society is fruit of a dynamics pautada in a failed attempt to exempt the men of the fear and to make of them gentlemen of itself exactly. It was what it intended the Iluminismo.

As consequence, values before had as basic, had been relegated as the plain one or violently substituted. The logic appeared of the market and the relations human beings, as consequence, had also passed to be pautadas of quantitative form. In other words, ' ' the market does not question on its birth, but the price of this advantage, pay for who made the exchange, was of being obliged to allow that its possibilities of nascena were shaped by the production of the merchandises that in it can be comprados.' ' (ADORNMENT; HORKHEIMER, 1980, P.