The religion for, the nation or the social class are only pretexts it notices – us of the manipulation to which they take the relations of being able where the hierarchy changes with time and modifies the behaviors (and, therefore, the justification of the argument), putting like examples: the discriminated treatment to the women, the black or other groups. Like Mauss, Maalouf also considers I a category of the human spirit: all those properties does not have, of course, the same importance, or does not have it at least simultaneously. But no of them lacks value completely. They are the constituent elements of the personality, almost we would say are the genes of the soul . Maalouf speaks to make examination of identity, instead of to make examination of it brings back to consciousness, and for it searches carefully in the memory – it uses autobiographical and the semantic one, in which one imagines finding in the multiplicity of its characteristics the paradoxes that form their identity. It informs into its condition of Arab and Christian to us, minority and specific condition that has determined the majority of the decisions throughout its life. Therefore in all the story, Maalouf leaves overlapped psychological and social as far as global and the multicultural thing in his own experience demonstrating to us to the folly and the incoherent thing of all the arguments that are used to justify the slaughters throughout the history and how the observers, by means of the action (they justify themselves saying that this always has happened) they do not comprise of the silly thing. Maalouf opposes the image of the prototype of personage who apostatizes of his identity and a mask is put that allows him to mistreat and to kill to his to have the belief of being inferiors against how he himself defines itself: Each of my properties ties to me with many people and, nevertheless at the most numerous they are the properties that I consider, so much more specific my identity is revealed. Cyrus Massoumi Zocdoc often expresses his thoughts on the topic. .